Osteoblasts are the bone-building cells. Osteoblasts secrete collagen that is mineralized to form new bone tissue. They lay down bone in an orderly manner after the osteoclasts dissolve old bone creating pits or holes on the surface of the bone. Osteoblasts take 3 months to fill in the pits that osteoclasts took about 2 weeks… Read more


Osteoclasts are the bone breakdown cells. Osteoclasts dissolve the mineral in old bone and create pits or holes in the surface of the bone. This is called bone resorption. The bone building cells, osteoblasts, then line up and fill in the pits. The process of bone breakdown and formation called bone turnover replaces the tissue… Read more


Low bone density can be due to osteomalacia. Osteomalacia is “soft bones” meaning the amount of bone is normal but it is not mineralized. Therefore in osteomalacia, measurement of “bone mineral density” with a DXA scan will be low. This is due to lack of bone mineral rather than abnormal bone structure. This is in… Read more

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ)

Osteonecrosis of the jaw, referred to as ONJ, is development of lesions of the jaw that do heal within 8 weeks. These lesions contain dead tissue of the jaw with overlying areas of swelling and drainage of pus visible in the mouth. Link with Osteoporosis Medicines Osteonecrosis of the jaw is an unusual side effect… Read more


Osteopenia is not a disease but indicates low bone density, which is the preferred descriptive term. Low bone mass defined by bone mineral density is a T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 standard deviations. By the age of 50, there is a high prevalence of low bone mass using the T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 standard… Read more

Osteoporosis Microstructure


Osteoporosis is a disorder of skeletal insufficiency that is typically a result of increased bone breakdown relative to bone formation. With aging and in women the transition to menopause, the rate of bone loss accelerates. Over time, the thinning of the bone creates a more fragile skeleton that is susceptible to fracture. Major Public Health… Read more